Indirect Voltammetric Determination of Zn2+ ion Using Chitosan Ferrocyanide Modified Carbon Paste Electrode

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Basic Sciences, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran


In this research, a chitosan and ferrocyanide modified carbon paste electrode has been applied for indirect voltammetric determination of Zn2+ ion. In order to prepare this electrode, first, the chitosan modified carbon paste electrode (Ch/CPE) was fabricated via mixing the certain ratio of graphite powder, paraffin oil and chitosan. Then, ferrocyanide was accumulated on Ch/CPE via electrostatic attraction and as open circuit. The decrease of anodic peak current of cyclic voltammograms of ferrocyanide adsorbed on the chitosan and ferrocyanide modified carbon paste electrode (Fe/Ch/CPE) in Zn2+ ion presence was used for indirect determination of this ion. The effect of various factors on the Fe/Ch/CPE response to Zn2+ ion such as chitosan percentage in carbon paste, ferrocyanide accumulation time on the electrode surface, ferrocyanide concentration and pH solution was studied and optimized. The studies showed that the Fe/Ch/CPE response to Zn2+ ion is linear in two concentration ranges, 0.0019-0.0122 mM and 0.0122-20.00 mM respectively, and the detection limit of method is 5.02 × 10-7 M based on three times the standard deviation (3σ). Also, this method was successfully applied for Zn2+ ion determination in drug real sample.


[1] C. J. Frederickson, J. Y. Koh, and A. I. Bush, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6 (2005) 449.
[2] J. H. Weiss, S. L. Sensi, and J. Y. Koh, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 21 (2000) 395.
[3] B. Krishna  Reddy, J. Rajesh  Kumar, L. Subramanyam Sharma, and A. Varada Reddy, Analytical Letters, 35 (2002) 1415.
[4] D. Nagarjuna Reddy, and K. Nagabushan Reddy, International Journal of Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 1 (2011) 77.
[5] D. Nagarjuna Reddy, K. Vasudevareedy, and K. Hussain Reddy, Der Pharma Chemica, 3 (2011) 496.
[6] K. Janardhan Reddy, J. Rajesh Kumar, C. Ramachandraiah, T. Thrivani, A. Varada Reddy, Food Chemistry, 101 (2007) 585. 
[7] A. Fakruddin, and Y. Lingappa, International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, 3 (2011) 24.
[8] A. Alireza, A. Pari, H. Maryam, S. N. Masoud, J. Of Applied Chemistry, 39 (1395) 99, in Persian.
[9] Sh. Farzaneh, R. Maryam, J. Of Applied Chemistry, 1 (1385) 43, in Persian.
[10] S. Sivaramaiah, and P. R. Reddy, Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 60 (2005) 933. 
[11] S. Garg, D. Sing, S. Verma, P. Sing, and Kadyan, Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences, 2 (2012) 1746.
[12] D. Nagarjunareddy, K. Vasudevareddy, and K. Hussain Reddy, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 3 (2011) 205.
[13] J. Lin, W. Qu, and S. Zhang, Analytical Biochemistry, 360 (2007) 288.
[14] M. A. Mohammed, A. K. Attia, and H. M. Elwy, Electroanalysis, 28 (2016) 1.
[15] J. Lin, C. He, L. Zhang, and S. Zhang, Analytical Biochemistry, 384 (2009) 130.
[16] E. Zarei, M. R. Jamali, and J. Bagheri, Iranian Journal of Catalysis, 8 (2018) 165.
[17] C. A. Rodrigues, E. Stadler, M. C. M. Laranjeira, and V. Drago, Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 8 (1997) 7.
[18] A. J. Bard, and L. R. Faulkner, Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications. Wiley-Interscience, New York, (2001).
[19] S. N.Azizi, S. Ghasemi, and H. Yazdani-Sheldarrei, International Journal of Hydrogen
Energy, 38 (2013) 12774.
[20] E. Laviron, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 101 (1979) 19.
[21] R. Ojani, J. B. Raoof, and E. Zarei, Electrochemica Acta, 52 (2006) 753.
[22] J. B. Raoof, R. Ojani, and S. Rashid-Nadimi, Electrochimica Acta, 50 (2005) 4694.
[23] T.-P. Chou, Ed.: Y.-M. Tsai, J.-L. She, Experiments in General Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University Press, 2009.
[24] F. Chekin J. B. Raoof, S. Bagheri, and S. B. A. Hamid, Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, 59 (2012) 1461.
[25] J. Berger, M. Reist, J. M. Mayer, O. Felt, N. A. Peppas, and R. Gurny, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 57 (2004) 19.
[26] H. Yang, X. Liu, R. Fei, and Y. Hu, Talanta, 116 (2013) 548.
[27] A. Mohadesi, and M. A. Taher, Talanta, 71 (2007) 615.
[28] A. Afkhami, A. Shirzadmehr, T. Madrakian, and H. Bagheri, Talanta, 131 (2015) 548.
[29] M. Shamsipur, B. Hashemi, S. Dehdashtian, M. Mohammadi, M. B. Gholivand, A. Garau, and V. Lippolis, Analytica Chimica Acta, 852 (2014) 223.
[30] T. Rohani, and M. A. Taher, Talanta, 80 (2010) 1827.
[31] R. Zhiani, M. Ghanei-Motlag, and I. Razavipanah, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 219 (2016) 554.
[32] H. H. Nadiki, M. A. Taher, H. Ashkenani, I. Sheikhshoai, Analyst, 137 (2012) 2431.
[33] M. Javanbakht, M. R. Ganjali, P. Norouzi, A. Badiei, A. Hasheminasab, M. Abdouss, Electroanalysis, 19 (2007) 1307.