Application of magnetic nanoparticles, functionalized using graphene oxide by RAFT agent as nanoabsorbent in dispersive solid phase microextraction of melamine from aqueous media

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Chemistry, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Department of Chemistry, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

3 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


In this investigation, a novel nano-adsorbent based on magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite was used for dispersive solid-phase microextraction (D-SPME) of melamine in environmental water samples. The m@GO-RAFT agents were synthesized by surface modification of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with graphene oxide via surface reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) copolymerization, as characterized by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Several parameters affecting extraction performance, including the extraction solvent, amount of nano-adsorbent, contact time and back-extraction time, and sample pH were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, analytical figures of merit such as linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.03–100 µg/L, 0.011 µg/L, and 0.027 µg/L, respectively.


[1] L. Wackett, M. Sadowsky, B. Martinez, N. Shapir, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 58 (2002) 39.
[2] S.M. Lahalih, M. Absi-Halabi, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 28 (1989) 500.
[3] D.M. She, H.L. Yu, Q.L. Huang, F.M. Li, C.J. Li, Molecules 15 (2010) 1898.
[4] D.J. Merline, S. Vukusic, A.A. Abdala, Polym. J. 45 (2013) 413.
[5] W.S. El-Sayed, A.F. El-Baz, A.M. Othman, Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 57 (2006) 75.
[6] X. Li, S. Feng, Y. Hu, W. Sheng, Y. Zhang, S. Yuan, H. Zeng, S. Wang, X. Lu, J. Food Sci. 80 (2015) C1196.
[7] H. Zhu, R. Halden, K. Kannan, Environ. Pollut. 245 (2019) 994.
[8] R. Cantú, O. Evans, F.K. Kawahara, J.A. Shoemaker, A.P. Dufour, Anal. Chem. 72 (2000) 5820.
[9] R. Bakain, Y. Al-Degs, A. El-Sheikh, S. Arar, Curr. Anal. Chem. 12 (2015) 74.
[10] J. Cheng, S. Wang, X.-O. Su, Plos One 9 (2014) e107770.
[11] M. Faraji, M. Adeli, Food Chem. 221 (2017) 139.
[12] L. He, Y. Su, X. Shen, Y. Zheng, H. Guo, Z. Zeng, J. Sep. Sci. 32 (2009) 3310.
[13] Y. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Han, G. Dong, H. Zhang, Am. J. Anal. Chem. 02 (2011) 612.
[14] S.-J. Liu, J.-J. Xu, C.-L. Ma, C.-F. Guo, Food Chem. 266 (2018) 275.
[15] B. Socas-Rodríguez, J. Hernández-Borges, A.V. Herrera-Herrera, M.Á. Rodríguez-Delgado, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 410 (2018) 2031.
[16] N. Mirzaei, V. Rezaei, B. Aibaghi, J. Appl. Chem. 14 (2019) 21.
[17] H. Zhao, M. Huang, J. Wu, L. Wang, H. He, J. Chromatogr. B 1011 (2016) 33.
[18] F. Gholami, R. Rahnama, J. Appl. Chem. 12 (2017) 53.
 [19] W.A.W. Ibrahim, H.R. Nodeh, M.M. Sanagi, Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 46 (2016) 267.
[20] Y. Wang, Y. Wen, Y.-C. Ling, Food Anal. Method 10 (2017) 210.
[21] R. Molaei, H. Tajik, M. Moradi, M. Forough, J. Food Comps. Anal. 87 (2020) 103400.
[22] S. Hosseinzadeh, H. Hosseinzadeh, S. Pashaei, Z. Khodaparast, Ecotox. Environ. Safe. 161 (2018) 34.
[23] M. Faraji, S. Shariati, Y. Yamini, M. Adeli, Arab. J. Chem. 9 (2016) S1540.
[24] M.-Q.C. Le, X.T. Cao, W.K. Lee, S.-S. Hong, K.T. Lim, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 644 (2017) 160.
[25] S. Seidi, M. Fotouhi, Anal. Methods 9 (2017) 803.
[26] F. Chen, J. Wang, H. Chen, R. Lu, X. Xie, Appl. Surf. Sci. 435 (2018) 247.
[27] A.A. Asgharinezhad, H. Ebrahimzadeh, F. Mirbabaei, N. Mollazadeh, N. Shekari, Anal. Chim. Acta 844 (2014) 80.
[28] J. Haginaka, H. Tabo, C. Kagawa, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 46 (2008) 877.
[29] L. He, Y. Su, Y. Zheng, X. Huang, L. Wu, Y. Liu, Z. Zeng, Z. Chen, J. Chromatogr. A 1216 (2009) 6196.
[30] G. Venkatasami, J.R. Sowa, Anal. Chim. Acta 665 (2010) 227.