Preparation, characterization, and adsorption properties of bis-salophen schiff base ligand immobilized on Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles for removal of lead(II) from aqueous solutions

Document Type : Original Article


1 Chemistry and Process Research Department, Niroo Research Institute (NRI), Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan, Iran


Here in this research a novel bis-salophen schiff base ligand anchored magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles was prepared and applied for removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. The obtained adsorbent Fe3O4@SiO2/Schiff base MNPs was characterized by using broad range of characterization techniques including fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and vibration sample magnetometry (VSM). After synthesizing bis-salophen schiff base ligand immobilized on Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles, the adsorption activity of this adsorbent for lead ions by nonmagnetic, in terms of effect of adsorbent dosage on the adsorption and kinetics behavior was investigated in detail. Furthermore, the adsorption and regeneration experiment showed there was about 91% in the adsorption capacity of the prepared Fe3O4@SiO2/Schiff base MNPs for lead. Finally, our results suggested that the Fe3O4@SiO2/Schiff base composites have a great potential to be employed for treatment of water and wastewater containing lead(II).


Main Subjects

This is an open access article under the CC-BY-SA 4.0 license.(

[1] Zhang, X., Jin, P., Xu, D., Zheng, J., Zhan, Z.-M., Gao, Q., Yuan, S., Xu, Z.-L., and Van der Bruggen, B. (2022). Triethanolamine modification produces ultra-permeable nanofiltration membrane with enhanced removal efficiency of heavy metal ions. Journal of Membrane Science, 644, 120127.
[2] Shah, L.A., Khan, M., Javed, R., Sayed, M., Khan, M.S., Khan, A., and Ullah, M. (2018). Superabsorbent polymer hydrogels with good thermal and mechanical properties for removal of selected heavy metal ions. Journal of cleaner production, 201, 78-87.
[3] Wang, J., Liu, M., Duan, C., Sun, J., and Xu, Y. (2019). Preparation and characterization of cellulose-based adsorbent and its application in heavy metal ions removal. Carbohydrate Polymers, 206, 837-843.
[4] Tian, W., Rong, Y., Li, D., Tian, J., Lin, N., and Wang, Z. (2022). Self-templated formation and characterization of polyhedral CoS hollow nanocage (HNC) for heavy metal ions (Ag+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+) removal in aqueous solutions. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 162, 110516.
[5] Zare, E.N., Motahari, A., and Sillanpää, M. (2018). Nanoadsorbents based on conducting polymer nanocomposites with main focus on polyaniline and its derivatives for removal of heavy metal ions/dyes: a review. Environmental Research, 162, 173-195.
[6] Vunain, E., Mishra, A., and Mamba, B. (2016). Dendrimers, mesoporous silicas and chitosan-based nanosorbents for the removal of heavy-metal ions: a review. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 86, 570-586.
[7] Lin, P.-Y., Wu, H.-M., Hsieh, S.-L., Li, J.-S., Dong, C., Chen, C.-W., and Hsieh, S. (2020). Preparation of vaterite calcium carbonate granules from discarded oyster shells as an adsorbent for heavy metal ions removal. Chemosphere, 254, 126903.
[8] Shi, Y., Xing, Y., Deng, S., Zhao, B., Fu, Y., and Liu, Z. (2020). Synthesis of proanthocyanidins-functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles with high solubility for removal of heavy-metal ions. Chemical Physics Letters, 753, 137600.
[9] Naseem, K., Begum, R., Wu, W., Usman, M., Irfan, A., Al-Sehemi, A.G., and Farooqi, Z.H. (2019). Adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions using polystyrene-poly (N-isopropylmethacrylamide-acrylic acid) core/shell gel particles: adsorption isotherms and kinetic study. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 277, 522-531.
[10] Ge, F., Li, M.-M., Ye, H., and Zhao, B.-X. (2012). Effective removal of heavy metal ions Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+ from aqueous solution by polymer-modified magnetic nanoparticles. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 211, 366-372.
[11] Priastomo, Y., Setiawan, H.R., Kurniawan, Y.S., and Ohto, K. (2020). Simultaneous removal of lead (II), chromium (III), and copper (II) heavy metal ions through an adsorption process using C-phenylcalix [4] pyrogallolarene material. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 8(4), 103971.
[12] Inaloo, I.D., Majnooni, S., Eslahi, H., and Esmaeilpour, M. (2020). Efficient nickel (II) immobilized on EDTA‐modified Fe3O4@ SiO2 nanospheres as a novel nanocatalyst for amination of heteroaryl carbamates and sulfamates through the cleavage of CO bond. Molecular Catalysis, 492, 110915.
[13] Baby, T.T. and Ramaprabhu, S. (2010). SiO2 coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes based amperometric glucose biosensor. Talanta, 80(5), 2016-2022.
[14] Lei, Z., Li, Y., and Wei, X. (2008). A facile two-step modifying process for preparation of poly (SStNa)-grafted Fe3O4/SiO2 particles. Journal of solid state chemistry, 181(3), 480-486.
[15] Dindarloo Inaloo, I., Majnooni, S., Eslahi, H., and Esmaeilpour, M. (2020). Nickel (II) nanoparticles immobilized on EDTA-modified Fe3O4@ SiO2 nanospheres as efficient and recyclable catalysts for ligand-free Suzuki–Miyaura coupling of aryl carbamates and sulfamates. ACS omega, 5(13), 7406-7417.
[16] Fried, T., Shemer, G., and Markovich, G. (2001). Ordered two‐dimensional arrays of ferrite nanoparticles. Advanced Materials, 13(15), 1158-1161.
[17] Jafari, A.A., Mahmoudi, H., and Firouzabadi, H. (2015). A copper acetate/2-aminobenzenthiol complex supported on magnetite/silica nanoparticles as a highly active and recyclable catalyst for 1, 2, 3-triazole synthesis. RSC advances, 5(130), 107474-107481.
[18] Wang, L., Sun, Y., Wang, J., Wang, J., Yu, A., Zhang, H., and Song, D. (2011). Preparation of surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on magnetic core/shell Fe3O4/SiO2 and Fe3O4/Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 84(2), 484-490.
[19] Abu-Reziq, R., Wang, D., Post, M., and Alper, H. (2008). Separable catalysts in one-pot syntheses for greener chemistry. Chemistry of Materials, 20(7), 2544-2550.
[20] Esmaeilpour, M., Sardarian, A.R., and Firouzabadi, H. (2018). Theophylline Supported on Modified Silica‐Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles as a Novel, Efficient, Reusable Catalyst in Green One‐Pot Synthesis of Spirooxindoles and Phenazines. ChemistrySelect, 3(32), 9236-9248.
[21] Sardarian, A.R., Kazemnejadi, M., and Esmaeilpour, M. (2019). Bis-salophen palladium complex immobilized on Fe 3 O 4@ SiO 2 nanoparticles as a highly active and durable phosphine-free catalyst for Heck and copper-free Sonogashira coupling reactions. Dalton Transactions, 48(9), 3132-3145.
[22] Esmaeilpour, M., Javidi, J., and Zandi, M. (2014). Preparation and characterization of Fe3O4@ SiO2@ PMA: AS an efficient and recyclable nanocatalyst for the synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols. Materials Research Bulletin, 55, 78-87.
[23] Vyas, G., Bhatt, S., and Paul, P. (2021). Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles Fe3O4@ SiO2@ PTA (PTA=(2-pyrimidylthio) acetic acid) for efficient removal of mercury from water. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 611, 125861.
[24] Moghanian, H., Mobinikhaledi, A., Blackman, A., and Sarough-Farahani, E. (2014). Sulfanilic acid-functionalized silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles as an efficient, reusable and magnetically separable catalyst for the solvent-free synthesis of 1-amido-and 1-aminoalkyl-2-naphthols. RSC advances, 4(54), 28176-28185.
[25] Soleimani, M., Ghaderi, S., Afshar, M.G., and Soleimani, S. (2012). Synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer as a sorbent for solid phase extraction of bovine albumin from whey, milk, urine and serum. Microchemical Journal, 100, 1-7.
[26] Soleimani, M., Mahmodi, M.S., Morsali, A., Khani, A., and Afshar, M.G. (2011). Using a new ligand for solid phase extraction of mercury. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 189(1-2), 371-376.
[27] Soleimani, M. and Afshar, M.G. (2015). Highly selective solid phase extraction of mercury ion based on novel ion imprinted polymer and its application to water and fish samples. Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 70(1), 5-12.